January Skorne Errata Developer's Notes

Hello from the development team! Below we have compiled a short list of notes on the newly released Skorne Faction errata. We hope these small insights coupled with our presence on the forums can help shed light on our goals with each change and our intentions with the game moving forward.

Lord Tyrant Hexeris

Warbeast Points. Reduce Lord Tyrant Hexeris’ warbeast points to +28.
Great Power. Lord Tyrant Hexeris gains the Great Power special rule:

Great Power – During your Control Phase, this model can upkeep one spell without spending fury.

Blood Boon. Remove the Blood Boon special rule from Lord Tyrant Hexeris.
Influence. Replace the Influence spell with Sunder Spirit:

Spirit Leech. Replace the Spirit Leech spell with Parasite:

Feat: Dark Dominion. Replace the fourth sentence of Dark Dominion with the following:

The model cannot be targeted by free strikes during this movement.

We made some big changes to Hexeris 1. We stripped out Blood Boon, a rule players didn’t often use, and replaced it with Great Power, which we hope will smooth out his fury use. Allowing models to gain a back strike bonus with his feat will force opponents to be very careful about positioning. Influence was a rarely used spell, so we replaced it with Sunder Spirit, which plays into Skorne’s punishment theme. Parasite is a very strong debuff and we believe it has an excellent home here with Hexeris 1. It fits well into his lore, too.

Archdomina Makeda

Field Marshal [Shield Guard]. Archdomina Makeda gains the Field Marshal [Shield Guard] special rule:

Field Marshal [Shield Guard] – Warbeasts in this model’s battlegroup gain Shield Guard. (When a friendly model is directly hit by a non-spray ranged attack during your opponent’s turn while within 3˝ of a model with Shield Guard, you can choose to have the model with Shield Guard directly hit instead. It is automatically hit and suffers all damage and effects. A model can use Shield Guard only once per round and cannot use Shield Guard if it is incorporeal, knocked down, or stationary.)

The Lash. Replace the text of The Lash spell with the following:

Subjugation of Will. Replace the Subjugation of Will spell with Jackhammer:

Feat: Grip of Death. Replace Grip of Death with Defiance of the Void:

Feat: Defiance of the Void
While in Makeda’s control range, friendly living models gain Retaliatory Strike. Additionally, when a friendly living warrior model in this model’s control range is disabled, this model can suffer 1 damage point to remove 1 damage point from the disabled model. This damage cannot be transferred. Defiance of the Void lasts for one round. (If a model with Retaliatory Strike is hit by an enemy melee attack during your opponent’s turn, after that attack is resolved it can immediately make one basic melee attack against the attacking model. A model with Retaliatory Strike can make only one Retaliatory Strike per turn.)

The changes to Makeda 1 represent a huge overhaul of this warlock. Her new feat functions much more consistently than her previous feat, allowing you to play your models far more aggressively. The addition of Field Marshal [Shield Guard] and the removal of Subjugation of Will free up some of her fury to cast her new spells. The Lash has all-new wording and synergizes very well with her character warbeast, Molik Karn, either increasing his threat range or allowing him to back out even farther from battle when combined with Fate Walker. We hope to push Makeda 1’s army style into a combined arms approach by allowing for beast slingshots with Quicken and The Lash, as well as strong scenario play with fast infantry, her Field Marshal, and Defiance of the Void.

Supreme Archdomina Makeda

Warbeast Points. Increase Supreme Archdomina Makeda’s warbeast points to +27.
Stay Death. Replace the text of Stay Death with the following:

When a friendly living non-warlock Faction warrior model in this model’s command range is disabled, this model can spend 1 fury point to remove 1 damage point from the disabled model.

The ability to use Stay Death on character models really opens up Makeda 2’s ability to play more diverse infantry builds that include units such as the new and improved Legends of Halaak or Cataphract Cetrati with Tyrant Vorkesh.

Lord Assassin Morghoul

FURY. Increase the FURY of Lord Assassin Morghoul to 6.
Mercy. Increase the POW of Mercy to 7 (P+S 13).
Elite Cadre [Bloodrunners]. Lord Assassin Morghoul gains the Elite Cadre [Bloodrunners] special rule:

Elite Cadre [Bloodrunners] – Friendly Bloodrunner models gain Parry .

Ghost Walk. Replace the Ghost Walk spell with Shadow Play:

Mortality. Lord Assassin Morghoul gains the Mortality spell:

The Lord Assassin has undergone a large transformation in how we want him to play. We envisioned him hiding in the shadows, commanding his forces and waiting for the time to strike. Adding Mortality to his spell list gives Morghoul 2 an offensive spell to cast in the early game while he is positioning himself to set up the assassination—allowing his army to effectively play an attrition game against most opponents. With his new FURY 6, his offensive spellcasting abilities have improved significantly. Shadow Play is a very powerful spell that lets target models become incorporeal for a turn—which opens up a huge number of assassination options and angles against the opposing ’casters—or simply allows for a very mobile and hard-to-tie-down force. We hope that the increase in POW on his dagger Mercy, coupled with his increase in FURY, will let Morghoul 2 finish off enemy warcasters and warlocks a lot more consistently than in the past.

Master Ascetic Naaresh

Field Marshal [Pain Response]. Master Ascetic Naaresh gains the Field Marshal [Pain Response] special rule:

Field Marshal [Pain Response] – Warbeasts in this model’s battlegroup gain Pain Response. (While damaged, a model with Pain Response can charge and make power attacks without being forced.)

Feat: Imperishable Flesh. Replace the text of Imperishable Flesh with the following:

Immediately apply up to 1 damage point to each aspect of living warbeasts in Naaresh’s battlegroup that are currently in his control range. Naaresh can remove 1 damage point for each damage point applied as a result of Imperishable Flesh. Additionally, while in Naaresh’s control range, living warbeasts in his battlegroup gain +1 STR and ARM for each of their damaged aspects. Imperishable Flesh lasts for one round.

Naaresh 1 did not need a major overhaul in our minds. He’s a strong beast warlock who has some tools for infantry and acts as a strong melee piece himself. Giving him Field Marshal [Pain Response] provides a rather large buff to his feat and a nice bump for other turns. It also plays nicely into his punishment-is-strength theme. His feat was changed to require living warbeasts.

Dominar Rasheth

Dark Rituals. Replace the first sentence of Dark Rituals with the following:

This model can channel spells through friendly Faction warrior models in its control range.

Rasheth is already a solid warlock. With this change we hope to align him better with his core concept: a spellcaster that willingly sacrifices his troops to further his agenda. The adjustment also represents a solid increase in power level and complexity.

Tyrant Xerxis

Rift. Replace the Rift spell with Lurch:

Our goal in giving Xerxis 1 a way to bump mobility for warbeasts is to make heavy warbeasts a more viable option for him. His command of infantry is already very strong, so we believe access to a greater diversity of strategic options will go a long way in making him a fun, competitive warlock.

Xerxis, Fury of Halaak

Warbeast Points. Reduce Xerxis, Fury of Halaak’s warbeast points to +28.
Field Marshal [+2 SPD]. Xerxis, Fury of Halaak gains the Field Marshal [+2 SPD] special rule:

Field Marshal [+2 SPD] – Warbeasts in this model’s battlegroup gain +2 SPD.

Mobility. Replace the Mobility spell with Rapport:

Petrify. Replace the Petrify spell with Stranglehold:

Xerxis 2 has undergone some huge changes in this round of errata. Replacing Mobility and adding Field Marshal [+2 SPD] really opens up possibilities for the order of activations as well as conserves fury for Xerxis 2 to remain active. When we first started working on this ’caster we gave him Battle Host, but we found that the +2 ARM, when combined with the Agonizer, Spiny Growth, and/or Force Aura, gave him simply too much survivability and let him play too far forward. As for Rapport, the double CTRL area is useful for a FURY 5 caster, not to mention a rather large MAT buff to most Skorne beasts. Because Xerxis 2’s RAT is so low, it’s handy to note that it is optional to use the Rapport MAT/RAT if you wanted to use it on a ranged warbeast without lowering its RAT. (Yes, the Archidon has a 40˝ control area with Rapport. Spoiler alert: Archidon changes ahead!) Finally, Stranglehold gives Xerxis 2 a nice offensive spell that also adds a bit of control to round out his spell list nicely.

Supreme Aptimus Zaal

Death Pact. Replace the Death Pact spell with Inviolable Resolve:

Swapping Inviolable Resolve for Death Pact allows for more options in selecting which units you can apply this buff to while retaining the ability to collect their souls. The change also means a minor increase in scenario presence, as affected models cannot be pushed out of zones.

Zaal, the Ancestral Advocate

SPD. Increase the SPD of Zaal, the Ancestral Advocate to 5.

Increasing Zaal 2’s speed gives him a bigger presence on the board. It lets him threaten more scenario elements and reach farther with Aura of Power.


Point Cost. Reduce the point cost of the Agonizer to 6.

Reducing the point cost of the Agonizer will help work it into more armies. We wanted this little guy to remain a staple of the Faction and hope this will encourage his inclusion.

Aradus Sentinel

Venom Blaster. The Venom Blaster gains the Scather special rule:

Scather – This attack’s AOE is a hazard that remains in play for one round. Models entering or ending their activations in the AOE suffer 1 point of corrosion damage.

Acidic Touch. Replace the Acidic Touch animus with Swarm:
Swarm 2 Self – – RND No
The spellcaster gains concealment. Living enemy models suffer –2 to attack rolls while within 2˝ of the spellcaster. Swarm lasts for one round.

Giving the Aradus Sentinel the Scather special rule allows this model a little control and helps to differentiate it from the Titan Cannoneer. Swarm is an animus that has far more uses than Acidic Touch and increases the utility of the model.

Aradus Soldier

Point Cost. Reduce the point cost of the Aradus Soldier to 16.

The Aradus Soldier has a very high melee output and is incredibly durable, but we found that the warbeast’s point cost and speed made it questionable to choose over other melee heavies. This reduction will hopefully make it more comparable to other heavy warbeasts.


STR. Increase the STR of the Archidon to 10 (P+S 15).
Immunity: Electricity . The Archidon gains Immunity: Electricity .
Point Cost. Reduce the point cost of the Archidon to 10.
Long Leash. The Archidon gains the Long Leash special rule:

Long Leash – When checking to see if this model is in its controller’s control range, double the range.

Taking the Archidon down to 10 points and increasing its STR to 10 make this warbeast a solid target for stacking buffs or a very fast utility beast with an excellent animus. Long Leash lets the Archidon function as a flanking beast or play aggressively with the lower-FURY warlocks found in Skorne. Because it is a creature from the Stormlands, we felt that Immunity: Electricity makes thematic sense and is a situational buff to the model.

Basilisk Drake

Lurker. Change the RNG of the Lurker animus to SELF, and replace the first sentence of Lurker with the following:
The spellcaster gains Pathfinder and Bushwhack.

Adding Pathfinder to Lurker gives the Drake the option to take advantage of it, but it is also very nice for certain ’casters that are lacking Pathfinder but could really use it (such as Zaadesh 2).

Basilisk Krea

Force Aura. Replace the text of the Force Aura animus with the following:

While within 3˝ of the spellcaster, friendly Faction models gain +2 DEF and ARM against ranged attacks. Force Aura lasts for one round.

Changing Force Aura to give bonus ARM in addition to DEF makes more sense with the direction that models like the Titans were taken at the start of the new edition. This change also helps out the Cataphract units quite a bit.

Bronzeback Titan

FURY. Increase the FURY of the Bronzeback Titan to 5.
THR. Reduce the THR of the Bronzeback Titan to 7.

The Bronzeback Titan in Mk II was a powerhouse of melee potential. When it lost access to free charges and a fury point it lost a lot of its momentum. With the return of free charges and the fury point , the Bronzeback’s spot in the Faction as a melee murder machine is well defined.

Cyclops Savage

Point Cost. Reduce the point cost of the Cyclops Savage to 7.

A reduction in points is just what the Savage needs to make an appearance in buff-stacking lists.

Cyclops Shaman

ARM. Increase the ARM of the Cyclops Shaman to 15.

The Shaman is a great warbeast, but we felt it was unable to survive well enough for its point cost against ranged lists. The ARM increase, coupled with the changes to the Basilisk Krea, makes the Shaman much more survivable in these situations.

Desert Hydra

RAT. Increase the RAT of the Desert Hydra to 6.
Sand Storm. Replace the first sentence of the Sand Storm animus with the following:

When an enemy model targets a model in the spellcaster’s command range with a ranged attack, the attack suffers –3 RNG.

Increasing the Desert Hydra’s RAT will make it a much larger threat against infantry, allowing it to clear large sections of the board. On the approach its new animus will help not only the Desert Hydra itself, but also the rest of your army, protecting them against shooting lists by reducing their ranged threat.


Tail. Increase the RNG of the Tail to 2.
Point Cost. Increase the point cost of the Despoiler to 19.

We were worried that Despoiler would be too similar to the Bronzeback Titan in both points and damage output, so we increased Despoiler’s point cost and compensated by increasing its melee range to 2˝. This change pairs nicely with the warbeast’s Dark Shroud rule. These adjustments leave the Bronzeback as the better melee choice for the points, while Despoiler is the better utility choice but still packs a punch.

Molik Karn

STR. Increase the STR of Molik Karn to 9 (P+S 14).
Point Cost. Reduce the point cost of Molik Karn to 19.

Molik Karn is a staple of many Skorne lists, and we want him to be widely considered as such. By increasing his damage output as well as lowering his cost, we hope to see him with a broader variety of warlocks.

Reptile Hound

THR. Decrease the THR of the Reptile Hound to 7.
Point Cost. Increase the point cost of Reptile Hounds to 4 points each.

Reptile Hounds can now be included in lists individually, not just as a pair. This allows you to use them as point fillers, and it also provides a cheap way to add fury to lists that may be fury starved.


STR. Increase the STR of the Rhinodon to 11 (Tail P+S 15, Claw P+S 14).
ARM. Increase the ARM of the Rhinodon to 18.
Tail. Increase the RNG of the Tail to 2. Additionally, the Tail gains the Critical Knockdown special rule:

Critical Knockdown – On a critical hit, the model hit becomes knocked down.

Giving the Rhinodon a 2˝ reach helps differentiate it from other similar pointed options. Making it slightly more survivable also makes this warbeast a useful choice in armies designed to piece-trade efficiently.

Scarab Pack

Hunting Pack. Replace the text of Hunting Pack with the following:

This model gains a +1 cumulative bonus to melee attack and damage rolls for each friendly Aradus warbeast or other model in this unit with the target of this model’s melee attack in its melee range.

This is a clerical change to make it clearer how the bonus is earned.

Titan Cannoneer

RAT. Increase the RAT of the Titan Cannoneer to 5.

The Titan Cannoneer with RAT 4 was missing heavier targets a little more often than we would like. RAT 5 should address this issue while not making the Cannoneer’s ranged attacks too effective against high-defense models.

Titan Gladiator

Point Cost. Increase the point cost of the Titan Gladiator to 15.

The Titan Gladiator was outperforming the other Skorne melee heavies. Couple that with one of the most useful animi in the Faction, and we felt this warbeast was a little too good for its points. Increasing the point cost by one brings it down to a more reasonable level while still remaining powerful and useful.

Cataphract Arcuarii

Combined Ranged Attack. Remove Combined Ranged Attack from the Cataphract Arcuarii.
Tough. Cataphract Arcuarii gain Tough .
Harpoon. The Harpoon gains Weapon Master .

Weapon Master ranged attacks are incredibly powerful. This addition gives the Cataphract Arcuarii a great variety of options. It makes them very likely to kill enemies outright or Drag medium-based infantry to their demise. The Arcuarii are now a threat to heavy warjacks with this change, as six POW 12 Weapon Master hits will put a large dent in most targets, even if the Arcuarii cannot Drag larger enemies in for the kill. In picking up Tough, the Cataphract Arcuarii gain much-needed survivability.

Cataphract Cetrati

Tough. Cataphract Cetrati gain Tough .
Point Cost. Reduce the point cost of Cataphract Cetrati to 12 (Leader & 3 Grunts) and 18 (Leader & 5 Grunts).
Set Defense. Cataphract Cetrati gain the Set Defense special rule:

Set Defense – A model in this model’s front arc suffers –2 on charge, slam power attack, and impact attack rolls against this model.

With a cost reduction, Tough, and Set Defense the Cetrati are a very attractive frontline fighting unit with excellent survivability.

Cataphract Incindiarii

Tough. Cataphract Incindiarii gain Tough .
Point Cost. Reduce the point cost of Cataphract Incindiarii to 11 (Leader & 3 Grunts) and 17 (Leader & 5 Grunts).
Incindus. Increase the POW of the Incindus to 13.

The Incindiarii form the main Cataphract anti-infantry shooting force. We wanted to increase their blast damage, making them more likely to kill light infantry outright while setting heavy infantry ablaze. The tweak in POW also makes them a little more threatening against heavier targets and allows for more consistent damage.

Extoller Advocate

Invigoration. Replace the Invigoration special rule with Death Boon:

Death Boon – When a model in this model’s unit makes an attack or damage roll during its activation, this model can spend one soul token to cause that model to reroll that roll. A roll can be rerolled only once as a result of Death Boon.

Because of the addition of Resonance to the Ancestral Guardians, Invigoration required a change. Death Boon granting rerolls to the unit makes them a very consistent melee threat.

Legends of Halaak

SPD. Increase the SPD of the Legends of Halaak to 7.
MAT. Increase the MAT of the Legends of Halaak to 8.
DEF. Increase the DEF of the Legends of Halaak to 14.
CMD. Increase the CMD of the Legends of Halaak to 8.
Melee Weapons. The melee weapons of the Legends of Halaak gain Weapon Master .
Flank [another model in this unit]. Remove the Flank [another model in this unit] special rule from the Legends of Halaak.

The Legends of Halaak are great warriors of renown from the Praetorian caste, but the stats on this unit were a little lackluster. We have given them many stat increases, and we removed Flank but added Weapon Master, to allow a little more flexibility in their positioning and use.

Paingiver Beast Handlers

Prodding. Paingiver Beast Handlers gain the Prodding special rule:

Prodding – While B2B with this model, friendly Faction warbeasts can charge without being forced. This model loses Prodding while out of formation.

By returning the Beast Handlers’ ability to give free charges to warbeasts, we hope that this across-the-board buff to warbeasts will give Skorne back a little bit of its highly trained and militarized feel. Because it requires warbeasts and Beast Handlers to be B2B it is a tricky ability to use. You will have to position your Beast Handlers well depending on where you wish to charge, so be careful!

Paingiver Bloodrunners

Combined Melee Attack. Remove Combined Melee Attack from Paingiver Bloodrunners.
Gang. Paingiver Bloodrunners gain the Gang special rule:

Gang – When making a melee attack targeting an enemy model in the melee range of another model in this unit, this model gains +2 to melee attack and melee damage rolls.

Gang functions in a manner very similar to Combined Melee Attack, but it will give the unit the potential for a significantly higher damage output, as it effectively doubles the number of attacks the unit can make.

Praetorian Ferox

Point Cost. Reduce the point cost of Praetorian Ferox to 12 (Leader & 2 Grunts) and 20 (Leader & 4 Grunts).

With the reduction of points for Cataphract units, we reevaluated the point costs of all elite infantry and determined that the Praetorian Ferox needed to drop a point as well.

Praetorian Keltarii

SPD. Increase the SPD of Praetorian Keltarii to 7.

The Praetorian Swordsmen were overshadowing the Praetorian Keltarii as a skirmishing infantry choice. By increasing the Keltarii’s speed, we allowed them to perform more of a frontline role. They are now excellent at advancing up the board quickly and are more resilient than the Praetorian Swordsmen against ranged attacks.

Praetorian Swordsmen

MAT. Increase the MAT of Praetorian Swordsmen to 7.

Increasing the MAT of the Praetorian Swordsmen brings them more in line with their fluff, which explains they are trained from birth to fight, and it is a nice jump-up in power against other infantry.

Praetorian Swordsman Officer & Standard

MAT. Increase the MAT of the Officer to 8, and increase the MAT of the Standard Bearer to 7.
Show of Force. Replace the Show of Force special rule with Power Swell:

Power Swell – This model can use Power Swell once per game at any time during its unit’s activation. This activation, models in this unit gain an additional die on melee damage rolls.

Power Swell shows off the martial prowess of the Praetorian Swordsmen and their ability to exert themselves in great feats of strength. It really opens up the unit as it can now perform several roles opposing infantry or warjacks/warbeasts.

Tyrant Commander & Standard Bearer

Tough. The Tyrant gains Tough .

The Tyrant Commander picked up Tough to reflect the physical conditioning required to bear the weight of Cataphract armor.

Tyrant Vorkesh

Tough. Tyrant Vorkesh gains Tough .

As with the Tyrant Commander, Tyrant Vorkesh picked up Tough to reflect his Cataphract conditioning.

Venator Reiver Officer & Standard

Granted: Combined Arms. The Officer gains the Granted: Combined Arms special rule:

Granted: Combined Arms – While this model is in formation, models in its unit gain Combined Arms. (When a model with Combined Arms misses an attack roll for a combined ranged attack, it can reroll that attack roll. Each attack roll can be rerolled only once as a result of Combined Arms.)

Combined Arms plays nicely into the Skorne fluff, which describes a highly trained and militaristic society of warriors. It shows how the unit can work together to complete its goals. It is also a great tool for an anti-infantry shooting unit and assassinations.

Venator Slingers

Advance Deployment. Venator Slingers gain Advance Deployment .

With Advance Deployment, the Venator Slingers can affect a much larger portion of the board on earlier turns. This helps them Flare targets for the Venator Reivers, which can take advantage of the Venator Reiver Officer’s Extended Fire special rule to reach deep into opposing armies and remove key targets.

Ancestral Guardian

Resonance [Immortal]. The Ancestral Guardian gains the Resonance [Immortal] special rule:

Resonance [Immortal] – An Immortal model/unit activating within 5" of one or more Ancestral Guardian models gains +2" movement when advancing as part of its Normal Movement that activation.

Restoring the Resonance [Immortal] rule enabled us to change around some options regarding the Immortals. It really let us smooth out these possibilities and build multiple models/units that work very well together.

Aptimus Marketh

ARM. Increase the ARM of Aptimus Marketh to 13.
Point Cost. Reduce the point cost of Aptimus Marketh to 5.

Decreasing Aptimus Marketh’s point cost should get him into lists that have non-upkeep spells such as Abuse. Increasing his ARM makes him pretty resilient and less vulnerable to blast damage and low-POW shooting, especially when combined with Ghost Shield.

Hakaar the Destroyer

Veteran Leader [Exalted]. Hakaar the Destroyer gains the Veteran Leader [Exalted] special rule:

Veteran Leader [Exalted] – While in this model’s command range, other friendly Exalted models gain +1 to attack rolls.

Hakaar is among the greatest heroes in the history of Skorne, and that should translate into game terms. We felt tying him into the other Exalted would not only be interesting fluff-wise but would also give players a good reason for his inclusion in armies containing other Exalted models.

Paingiver Bloodrunner Master Tormentor

Barbed Whip. The Barbed Whip gains Weapon Master .

Giving the Master Tormentor’s whip Weapon Master opens up many options for this model. The change makes Master Tormentors a great choice against multi-wound infantry, and they can even soften up heavies for a killing blow later in the turn or game.

Paingiver Task Master

Scutter (★Action). The Paingiver Task Master gains the Scutter (★Action) special rule:

Scutter (★Action) – RNG 3. Target friendly non-warlock Minion warrior model/unit. If the model/unit is in range, it gains Reposition [3˝]. Scutter lasts for one turn. (At the end of an activation in which it did not run or fail a charge, a model with Reposition [3˝] can advance up to 3˝, then its activation ends.)

Temper Flesh. Replace the Temper Flesh special rule with Temper Flesh (★Action):

Temper Flesh (★Action) – RNG 3. Target friendly non-warlock Minion warrior model/unit. If the model/unit is in range, it gains Tough . Temper Flesh lasts for one round.

Scutter is a new rule that really brings to life a few of your Minion options in Skorne. Temper Flesh changing to the whole unit now instead of just the models within 3˝ of the Task Master makes it a much easier rule to use and expands your options even further in terms of the kind of Minions you can take and use the Task Master effectively with.

Siege Animantarax

SPD. Increase the SPD of the Siege Animantarax to 5.
Double Reiver. Increase the RNG of the Double Reiver to 12.
Point Cost. Decrease the point cost of the Siege Animantarax to 17.
Burst Fire. Replace the Burst Fire special rule on the Double Reiver with Volume Fire:

Volume Fire – Gain +1 to attack and damage rolls with this weapon against medium-based models and +2 to attack and damage rolls against large- and huge-based models.

By increasing its speed and range we have massively expanded the area of the board a Siege Animantarax can threaten. Along with its lower point cost and a significantly improved ranged attack, we feel the Siege Animantarax will see play as a strong shooting platform backed up with a solid melee threat.